Sunday, May 24, 2020

Transcendentalism In The Novel Into the Wild - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1535 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/03/22 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Into The Wild Essay Did you like this example? Transcendentalism, defined as the era that transcends the limits of intellect, reason, and society; which allows emotions and soul to aid in creating a relationship with the universe or nature to achieve perfection. This era took place in the 1800s, which was created from the start of controversial debates between New Light theologians and the Old Light opponents. The New Light members believed religion should focus on the peoples personal experience, unlike the Old Light members who valued to have reason in their religious approach. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Transcendentalism In The Novel Into the Wild" essay for you Create order Jon Krakauer, in Into the Wild, utilizes the ideas of Emerson and Thoreau, two significant writers of the transcendentalist period, to create a sense of Transcendentalism. In Thoreaus book, Walden, Thoreau went to live out in the wilderness alone with nothing for two years; during his experimentation at Walden Pond, he wrote about the simplicity, unity of nature, the faith of humanity, and individualism. Whereas Emerson believed that a persons potential was limitless, and people should have a free spirit rather than conforming to societys way of living. These idealistic philosophers wished for others to look at nature, at themselves, and art to find the answers to lifes hardest questions. Based on the ideas of these two writers, it is believed that Chris McCandless, the main character in Into the Wild, fits the mold of a truly worthy transcendentalist. The main characteristics of Chris McCandless prove he was indeed a transcendentalist because he followed the path of transcendentalis m; supporting the ideas of rejection of socialization in favor of isolation by nature, the insignificance of materialistic wealth, and the importance of self-reliance for living in this world. In the novel Into the Wild, it is apparent that Chris McCandless is dispassionate towards society and socializing. McCandless only socializes and sends letters to individuals that help him throughout his journey. After McCandless had finished college, he left his parents and Atlanta and he intended to invent an utterly new life for himself, one in which he would be free to wallow in unfiltered experience (Krakauer 23). McCandless makes it evident that he wants nothing to do with his parents or anyone in general and planned to go to Alaska to live a new life for himself. He intended to go into the woods and isolate himself from society, so he can live the new life that he had wanted since he left Atlanta. Even though McCandless met people that helped him throughout his journey, he never intended to stay with them when they had asked him to. It is unclear why his motives led him to carry out these actions, but many of them leave the reader thinking that he may be a transcendentalist. In the novel, the author states He had not seen or talked to another soul in thirty-six days. For that entire period, he subsisted on nothing but five pounds of rice and what marine life he could pull from the sea (Krakauer 36). This quote from the novel explains that McCandless never intended to socialize with anybody, preferred to be left alone with no help, and wanted to rely on certain foods. McCandless has many characteristics that a transcendentalist would have which would leave many individuals to believe whether Chris McCandless was attempting to practice transcendentalism. Just like the transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau once isolated himself from society, it seems like Chris McCandless was trying to follow into his footsteps by attempting to live in the wilderness. The purpose of Thoreaus isolationism from society by going to the woods of Walden Pond for two years was to gain a better understanding of what life has to offer and to live a purposeful life. Because Thoreau is a transcendentalist and believes in self-reliance, his actions also set an example of self-reliance by relying on himself to live rather than relying on others. Similarly, McCandlesss actions are like Thoreaus in ways that transcendentalism may play a role. McCandless isolates himself from society including his own parents, plans on going to the woods in Alaska to live a new life, and only eats food from nature such as berries and fish. These similarities lead many people to be convinced that McCandless could have possibly been a transcendentalist. As the reader progresses through the story, it becomes more apparent that Chris McCandless is worthy of being called a transcendentalist when he showed that he was not a materialistic person and preferred to live simply. For inst ance, During his senior year at Emory, Chris lived off campus in his bare, spartan room furnished with milk crates and a mattress on the floor. Few of his friends ever saw him outside of classes (Krakauer 124). This quote proves that he does not require excessive materials to live out his life, and he should not make things to be more complex with items; he only needed the necessities for his daily life. This can be tied to Thoreaus Where I Lived and What I Lived For, this essay shares similar ideas to Chris McCandless; they both favor keeping their life simple and not having an obsession with materials as society does. Thoreau writes in Where I Lived and What I Lived For, Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity! I say, let your affairs be as two or three, and not a hundred or a thousand; instead of a million count half a dozen, and keep your accounts on your thumb-nail, he emphasizes to keeping it simple. (Thoreau) An example of this mindset in Into the Wild is when Chris graduated from high school, his parents bought a brand new vehicle as a congratulations gift; they even offered to pay for law school if there was not enough money in his college fund. However, Chris did not approve of this and denied the gift given to him. Chris believed he had the perfect car, a car that has traveled from Miami to Alaska and has not given him any problems; he did not see why he needed another one, and he stated this about a hundred times to his parents. He complained in a letter to his sister, Carine, they ignore what I say and think Id actually accept a new car from them! Im going to have to be real careful not to accept any gifts from them in the future because they will think they have bought my respect (Krakauer 17). This just goes to show that Chris McCandless truly fits into the transcendentalist ideals and mindset; his respect would not be bought with material objects, it would be earned through their listening and letting him grow as an individual. Furthermore, there is an additional purpose as to why Chris McCandless decided to live in the wild rather than live comfortably in a house; he wished to prove to himself that man can survive without objects that society glorifies, and McCandless thought the way to do this was to start fresh. He went through such lengths to make this happen, he cut off any connections with his family, donated all of his money, and even changed his name to Alex Supertramp; his old life was tossed away. When it came down to making these choices, they were irrefutable. To the readers, his actions would be significant to be the inspiration for all to follow, and for others, to learn from his mistakes. The fact that he wanted to get closer to nature, start new and considering the lengths he took to get there is proof the man is a transcendentalist. In Into the Wild, Chris McCandless strived in extremes to be a self-reliant transcendentalist in relations to Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. Throughout the course of Jon Krakauers book, Krakauer thoroughly describes to the audience about McCandless life in college, before his attempt to live in the American wilderness. As stated, . . . Chris lived off campus in a monkish roomAnd he didnt have a phone, so Walt and Billie [Chriss parents] had no way in calling him. (Krakauer 22). The novel itself portrays how rootless Chris desired to live. Following that, he also refused in accepting a car which his parents attempted to give him and decided to willingly donate his entire twenty-four thousand dollar college fund towards the OXFAM America charity; money, including any sort of materialistic belongings, clearly obtained no sentimental connection towards Chris. In Emersons Self-Reliance, McCandless seemingly fits the description as Emerson wrote, Is it so bad then, to be misunderstood? Pythagoras was misunderstood, and Socrates, and Jesus, and Luther, and Copernicus. . . To be great is to be misunderstood. . . (Emerson 392). In this essay, Emerson discusses in arguments about his beliefs towards society to which contains an adverse effect on ones own personal perspective and growths. Adequately, through his writings, objectifies the freedom in unveiling ones spirituality and independence. After studying through Chris McCandless life in Into the Wild, we are given the opportunity to personally understand that he never once allowed his life to stand in the way of something he wished to accomplish. The only person you are fighting is yourself and your stubbornness to engage in new circumstances. (Krakauer 58). In comparison to a true transcendentalist, Chris allowed his individuality to course through his dreams and continued his refusal towar ds conforming in our prosaic society.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Domestic violence Free Essays

Article Critique My article Is about the NFG football player Ray Rice who was caught on video surveillance beating up his fiancà ©Ã‚ ©e viscously until she fell unconscious. In the article it explains that sadly, the NFG has dealt with many domestic violence cases Just as bad as this one. In the criminal case, he can avoid prosecution and a criminal record by completing the pre-trial intervention program. We will write a custom essay sample on Domestic violence or any similar topic only for you Order Now Most people who do such an offence wouldn’t be given this option to do instead. Many people believe that since he is professional athlete, he is able to go around the justice system in favor for himself. â€Å"Joana Rice has been supportive of her husband and criticized his indefinite suspension by the NFG†. I chose this quote because I found it very shocking that his fiancà ©Ã‚ ©e that was beaten up by Ray Rice is defending him and accusing the media for getting into their private lives. She is probably doing this out of fear from him. This relates to our Families In Canada class because It shows us what an abusive legislations Is and how the man thinks he Is more dominant then the woman. The mall reason why I chose this article was that It shocked me that his flan ©e was defending him after the incident and said the media should leave them alone. I also chose it because I know this is a regular issue in professional sports. Incidents like this happen a couple times a year and mainly in the NFG. To conclude this article teaches me that this is a bad example for information for parents and families. Class Question: Why do you think Ray Rice’s fiancà ©Ã‚ ©e defended him after an incident like this? By: Matthew Tomato’s RAY RICE By animators My article is about the NFG football player Ray Rice who was caught on video he is professional athlete, he is able to go around the Justice system in favor for relates to our Families in Canada class because it shows us what an abusive relationship is and how the man thinks he is more dominant then the woman. The main reason why I chose this article was that it shocked me that his fiancà ©Ã‚ ©e was How to cite Domestic violence, Papers Domestic Violence Free Essays According to statistics of recorded crimes in California, seventy five percent are women who are killed by an intimate partner. Moreover, more than eighty percent was being abused by a spouse or a boyfriend (CPEDV, 2007). Domestic or intimate partner violence has been a major problem in California. We will write a custom essay sample on Domestic Violence or any similar topic only for you Order Now It includes violence between spouses, former or current partners, etc. It occurs in every part of the globe, regardless of culture and economic status. Women are more likely to suffer from domestic violence rather than males. Domestic violence involves physical, sexual, verbal, emotional and psychological abuse. Physical abuse includes intentional using of force that can cause severe injury, disability, and even death. When an intimate partner use bodily force to oblige his partner in a sexual act reluctantly or if he used obnoxious sexual contact, that is considered a form of sexual violence. Verbal and emotional abuse includes use of insults or any forms of humiliating acts against his partner. In psychological abuse, the victim is being dominated by her partner: controlling her, withholding facts from the victim, making the victim feel inferior, separating the victim from her family, and rebuffing her from money access or other essential resources. Economic abuse is when the victim has lost control from her own economic resources. Also, part of economic abuse is preventing his partner to finish school or won’t allow her to get a job. Domestic violence was considerably related with her childhood’s experience, having lower education, liberal thoughts about the roles of women, substance or alcohol use, faithfulness, having a close friend or other intimate partner, her partner’s drinking habit, either of the couple supports the family financially, and the like. Age, employment, economic difference, cohabitation, domestic assets, urbanization, conjugal status, and insights of cultural norms on women’s function in the society show trivial associations with the probability of domestic violence. Studies imply that domestic violence is most strongly associated to the type of women in a society and to the normative use of violence in conflict situations or as part of the exercise of power (Jewkes et al, 2002). Possible consequences of domestic violence include severe injury (bilateral bruises, broken bones, internal bleeding, and even death), higher rate of long-term health problems such as headaches, back pain, sexually transmitted disease, urinary infections, appetite loss, and abdominal pain, and gynecological, chronic stress and psychological problems such as trauma, sense of inferiority, nightmares, anxiety, feeling of depression and the like. Not only the victim can suffer from the consequences of domestic violence, her family, especially children who had witnessed the violence may acquire post-traumatic stress disorder, behavioral problems, and depressions. The incidence can leave a mark or a scar for everyone involved (Domestic Violence Intervention Center, 2008). Many cases of domestic violence are not being reported, this is due to the victim’s fear of her former partner that he may stalk, attack or even kill her anytime if his violence will be reported. However, there are government and non-government agencies that help victims of domestic violence to escape from an abusive partner and start a new life with her own or with her family; one is the California Partnership to End Domestic Violence (CPEDV). The agency was formed from two preceding agencies Statewide California Coalition for Battered women and the California Alliance against Domestic Violence. The said program aims to ensure safety and justice for victims and survivors of domestic violence and their family (CPEDV, 2007). Domestic violence is a serious crime. It is something we should not take for granted since it can be a long-timed suffering, or even fatal, for everyone involved. References ChildbirthSolutions, Inc. (2008). Violence against Women. Retrieved January 26, 2008 from http://www. childbirthsolutions. com/articles/issues/violence/index. php CPEDV. (2007). Frequetly Asked Questions about Domestic Violence. Retrieved January 28, 2008 from http://www. cpedv. org/CPEDV_faq. html Domestic Violence Intervention Center. (2008). Consequences of Violence on Psychological Health. Retrieved January 28, 2008 from http://www. dvic. org/Consequences-of-Domestic-Violence-on-Psychological-Health. php Jewkes, R. et al. (2002). Risk Factors for domestic Violence: findings from a South African cross-sectional study. PubMed Database. Retrieved January 28, 2008 from http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/sites/entrez SafeState. (2007). Domestic Violence. Retrieved January 26, 2008 from http://safestate. org/index. cfm? navId=9 How to cite Domestic Violence, Papers Domestic Violence Free Essays Domestic Violence: Violence and Children Domestic Violence Domestic Violence is defined as any violent or abusive behavior (whether physical, sexual, psychological, emotional, verbal, financial, etc. ) which is used by one person to control and dominate another with whom they have or have had relationship with. Every year, thousands of women are victimized at the hand of an intimate partner, making domestic violence one of the major crimes against women in the United States. We will write a custom essay sample on Domestic Violence or any similar topic only for you Order Now Despite the high rate of violence against women and the recent attention to the physical and emotional consequences of this abuse, until recently relatively little attention had been given to the unseen victims – the children. More than half the female victims of domestic violence live in a household with children under the age of 12 (United States Department of Justice – Violence by Intimates, 2000). Although estimates vary greatly, some research indicates that two – ten million children witness domestic violence each year in the United States (Rossman, Hughes, Rosenberg, 2000). Because children exposed to domestic violence may not necessarily be direct victims of abuse, they may be overlooked by helping professionals and, therefore their potential problems related to witnessing the abuse go unnoticed. Ignoring the consequences of exposure to violence on children can negatively impact their cognitive development as well as their emotional and physical health. Children exposed to domestic violence may be impacted in a variety of ways. Effects might be direct or indirect and one must consider prevention, intervention, and mediating factors. Exposure may increase negative externalizing behavior, increase risk of aggressive behavior, cause anxiety and depression, lead to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or perpetuate the cycle of violence by increasing the probability that the child will grow up to be a perpetrator or victim of domestic violence. It is important to understand that children who are exposed to violence are each unique and despite the fact that many may display negative consequences or great resiliency, each must be assessed carefully and individually to determine the exact consequence of exposure. What can be done? The first and most important intervention for children is to address the issues of safety for the family. With so many children exposed to domestic violence and with potentially dire consequences resulting, it is important for courts, practitioners and advocates to better understand how children are affected by such exposure and how that impact might be altered by protective factors, such as supportive relationships with a caregiver. The community should hold perpetrators responsible for their abusive behavior and provide a variety of legal interventions and social services to stop this violence. Child protection services, domestic violence agencies, juvenile courts, and community-based services should design interventions to create safety, enhance well-being, and provide stability for children and their families. Child welfare administrators should try to keep children affected by maltreatment and domestic violence in the care of their non-abusing parent, therefore creating permanency for the child/children. The child protection services should have well-trained full time service providers/advocates on staff to respond meaningfully to the safety of multiple victims within a family. They should respectfully and without blame offer their services to victims, and provide the necessary service as soon as problems are identified. Child protection services, domestic violence agencies, juvenile courts and even neighborhood residents should provide leadership to bring communities together to collaborate for the safety, well-being, and stability of children experiencing domestic violence. What a child learns at an early age depends on the parent’s ability to maintain and monitor what the children see and hear from their surroundings. References Rossman, R. B. , Hughes, H. M. , Rosenberg, M. S. (2000). Children and Interparental Violence: The Impact of Exposure. Michigan: Edward Brothers. United States Department of Justice. (2000). Violence by Intimates. Retrieved March 20, 2013, from: http://bjs. gov/content/pub/pdf/ipv. pdf How to cite Domestic Violence, Essay examples Domestic Violence Free Essays â€Å"A violence that occurs between partners in an intimate relationship such as marriage, or cohabitation – to live together as husband and wife, usually without legal or religious sanction. † That’s how dictionary. com describes spousal abuse. We will write a custom essay sample on Domestic Violence or any similar topic only for you Order Now But to me, spousal abuse is when one person in a marriage sanctified relationship verbally, mentally, emotionally, or physically abuses the other person in the relationship. Many people view domestic violence as only happening to specific races, ethnicities, class, education level or age of the abuser but, surprising to many, it occurs in all social economic, religious, and cultural groups. And it can be the most damaging thing a man or woman could ever go through. In the US, a woman is beaten or assaulted every 9 seconds. At least one in every three women has been beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused during her lifetime all around the world. Most often, the abuser is a member of her own family. Domestic violence is the leading cause of injury to women – more than car accidents, muggings, and rapes combined. Studies suggest that up to 10 million children witness some form of domestic abuse annually. Nearly 1 in 5 teenage girls who have been in a relationship said a boyfriend threatened violence or self-harm if presented with a breakup. Every day in the US, more than three women are murdered by their husbands or boyfriends. 92% of women surveyed listed reducing domestic violence and sexual assaults as their top concern. Domestic violence victims lose nearly 8 million days of paid work per year in the US alone – the equivalent of 32,000 full-time jobs. Based on reports from 10 countries, between 55% and 95% of women who had been physically abused by their partners had never contacted non-governmental organizations, shelters, or the police for help. The costs of intimate partner violence in the US alone exceed $5. 8 billion per year: $4. 1 billion are for direct medical and health care services, while productivity losses amount for nearly $1. 8 billion. Men who as children witnessed their parents’ domestic violence were twice more likely to abuse their own wives than sons of nonviolent. He always apologized, and sometimes he would even cry because of the bruises he’d made on her arms or legs or her back. He would say that he hated what he’d done, but in the next breath tell her she’d deserved it. That if she’d been more careful, it wouldn’t have happened. That if she’d been paying attention or hadn’t been so stupid, he wouldn’t have lost his temper. † -Nicholas Spa rks, Safe Haven. When people think of abuse, they always seem to ask the question: â€Å"Why don’t you just leave? ,† â€Å"Why did you stay so long in the first place? ,† â€Å"How could you love someone who did something like that to you? But it’s not always that easy. A woman I know very well and am extremely close with was once affected by spousal abuse and she will be the first person to say leaving was not only the hardest thing she’s ever done, but the scariest and most complicated. This woman was beaten numerous times by a husband that â€Å"loved her. † â€Å"At first it wasn’t so bad,† she recalls. â€Å"He wasn’t always mean. And when he was being nice, I couldn’t even remember the times he was being mean. † Abuse is a cycle. It can start out being once a year, once a month, and escalate to being numerous times a day. Abuse works sort of like the cycle of precipitation. When the sun heats up the body of water, it’s like the man getting angry. As the water evaporates and rises into the air, it’s like the yelling, name calling, emotional aspect of abuse is construed. As the water cools and condenses to become droplets, which form clouds, is when the pushing and the shoving and the slight hitting begin. When the water condenses and falls to the ground as rain or snow, is when the beating begins: the punching, the kicking, the mauling. And as the rain collects, is when apologizes and/or crying begins. The worst time was when we beat me so bad I couldn’t open my eyes for a week,† my friends confines to me. â€Å"Once he got mad and punched me so hard he cracked my rib. † â€Å"He later got mad and kicked me out of the bed which surfaces the continuation of the breaking of the rib. † â€Å"He would lock my in the basement for hours just because he got mad. † â€Å"He would rip apart my clothes and take a hammer to all the jewelry I owned that wasn’t on my body. † â€Å"He cheated on me. † â€Å"He undermined me, called me names, talked to me so bad I thought I was a monster. I would look in the mirror once a day just to brush my hair and put on my makeup. Now, as you read this I know you’ve asked yourself that universal question: â€Å"Why didn’t you just leave? Why’d you let it get so bad? † But think when you were threatened weekly that he would not only kill you, but your family, and take your kids, leaving would probably be the last thing on your mind. â€Å"Why didn’t you call the cops? † Well, when you wanted nothing more than to pretend that nothing was happening and everything was okay and you were normal just like everyone else, getting law enforcement involved and creating drama was the absolute last thing you wanted. But she did finally get the courage to leave when she thought of her oldest son, and how he’d be starting school soon. How could you send a child to school with them witnessing his mother getting beaten and him be able to actually lead a normal life? And believe me this not something that just happened out of the blue. It was an extraneous plan to get out without him hurting her, her family, and most importantly, their two sons. The story I’ll never forget though, is months after she left, going back to pick up her son from the father’s supervised visitation, he tried to kill her. Just thinking of this story sends chills down my spine and brings tears to my eyes. Their son had an event at Sunday school he was dying to go to, and he could only under one condition†¦ She had to go pick him up by herself. Thinking back upon this, she realizes what a stupid decision she made but at the time, she was focused on her the wants of her child. As she arrived at his house, she approached the door, having a gut feeling that something was really wrong but she suffaced the feeling and went inside to get her boy. Upon departure, the man that had formerly beaten her asked if he could walk her to the car. This was weird because he never asked for permission, but she just shrugged it off and agreed to it, which would prove later to be the worst decision of her life. As she reached over to buckle in her oldest son, she felt the hair on the back of her neck stand up, she knew something horrendous was momentarily about to happen. She turned around to her former husband, the former love of her life, blatantly stabbing her repeatedly in the chest with the sheer intention to murder her. As she sat there pressing against the steering wheel as hard as she could, her two children screaming bloody murder, this man, who â€Å"loved this woman more than that anything on the planet,† jabbed a knife into her chest twelve different times. If it hadn’t been the man’s mother running outside to see what all the commotion was about, this woman probably won’t be here today. The woman is strongest, most courageous, most beautiful woman I know. She is my role model. She was dealt the worst card a life could of been dealt and struggled through it and is now one of the most happy women on the planet. This woman has been there for me through thick and thin. She is a pinochle of strength. She is the prime example that abuse could most possibly be the worst thing on this planet, but you can get through and even though at the time it make seem like it, it’s not the end of the world. Just remember next you hear a story of abuse and think, â€Å"Why didn’t they just leave? ,† think back to this woman story. See her struggles and difficulties. See how hard it was to escape. Next, time don’t just judge the book by the cover. Open it up and read a few pages first. Abuse is an extremely serious thing that shouldn’t be ignored. I know I sound like one of those commercials telling to call someone, let someone know it’s happening to you. But it’s the truth. The sooner you come out to someone about it, the closer you are to getting the courage to leave once and for all. Remember, it’s not going to be an easy process but, in life, you have to work for the things you truly want and are truly important to you. And remember, you’re not the only one. This happens to women all over the world. You’re not alone, take a stand. By: Chelsea Fenwick 3rd Period * Statistics and facts taken from http://domesticviolencestatistics. org/domestic-violence-statistics/ How to cite Domestic Violence, Essay examples Domestic Violence Free Essays string(201) " of why men or women abuse and why men and women are reluctant to end abusive relationships may seem abstract, but theories have important implications how to understand the problem \(Sampson, 2006\)\." Executive Summary The question of why men or women abuse and why men and women are reluctant to end abusive relationships may seem abstract, but theories have important implications how to understand the problem (Sampson, 2006). You read "Domestic Violence" in category "Essay examples" â€Å"An ecological perspective conceptualizes violence as a complex problem rooted in the interactions among various factors at the individual, family and community/societal levels of an individual’s environment (WHO, 2002). Learned helplessness has been applied to domestic violence and battered women cases, due to the frame of mind that women are limited to, as well as to answer questions such as why women will not leave an abusive environment. We will write a custom essay sample on Domestic Violence or any similar topic only for you Order Now According to Barnett (1993), sex-roles play a major part in the perceptions of women; for example in regards to socialization women are taught that the norm is to rely upon a male partner for their attachment and support. On the opposite end, men are taught to be aggressive; women are instructed to be soft, and nurturing. Domestic violence policies are designed to either reduce subsequent violence after an incident, or to deter potential violence. A new proposed social work policy or program that stems from learned helplessness theory would ensure the reporting of possible domestic violence more prominently. Recommendations for further research, practice, and social work policy should focus more on the long term effects of domestic violence within families. A new proposed social work policy or program that stems from learned helplessness theory would ensure the reporting of possible domestic violence more prominently. Abstract Domestic Violence is a pattern of assaultive and coercive behaviors that adults or adolescents use against their current or former intimate partners. The relationship may be one of marriage, cohabitation, or dating. There are  several different aspects of domestic violence that include: physical, sexual, psychological, verbal, emotional, and economical. This paper will discuss theories related to domestic violence, social work policies or programs that logically stems from the theory and recommendations for further research, practice and social work policy. Domestic Violence: A Social Analysis Domestic Violence is a pattern of assaultive and coercive behaviors that adults or adolescents use against their current or former intimate partners. The relationship may be one of marriage, cohabitation, or dating. There are  several different aspects of domestic violence that includes: physical, sexual, psychological, verbal, emotional, and economical. An estimated twelve million people are abused in the United States alone every year. Every two minutes, someone in the US is sexually assaulted. One in six women and one in thirty-three men have been victims of attempted or completed rapes in their lifetime. Fifteen percent of sexual assault and rape victims are under the age of 12. One in  four women in the United States will be abused in her lifetime. These are not small numbers. This is more than seven times as many people as die of heart disease, cancer, car accidents, and firearms combined. Ecological Theory for Domestic Violence The ecological theory is useful in application to cases of domestic violence in that it incorporates the complexities of life to understand the multi-faceted nature of violence. An ecological perspective conceptualizes violence as a complex problem rooted in the interactions among various factors at the individual, family and community/societal levels of an individual’s environment (WHO, 2002). Four Levels of the World Health Organization Ecological Model On the individual level, biological and personal factors including personal history can increase the likelihood of being a victim or a perpetrator of violence. Other contributing factors include age, personality disorders, substance abuse, education and income. This comprises what an individual brings with them to the relationship including values, attitudes, beliefs and subjective perceptions (WHO, 2002, Carlson, 1984). The relationship level includes family and friends which incorporates the dynamics between family members. This close inner circle and relationship patterns influences behavior and contributes to their life experiences. This level focuses on the nature of family life, the quality of the spousal relationship which often interrelates on the individual level (Carlson, 1984). The community level refers to settings such as work environment, schools and neighborhoods. An important component on the opposite end of the spectrum is the lack of social networks, poverty and community involvement. The community level can refer to the economic realities including employment versus unemployment, crime level and law enforcement (Carlson, 1984). The societal level looks at broad factors that either encourages or discourages family violence. This can include cultural norms regarding gender roles, parent-child relationships, educational and economic trends. This level comprises a wide array of different variables that can impact all other levels including exposure to media, which can encourage or inhibit violence, and the general acceptance of violence, availability of firearms and response of law enforcement. Our belief system affects us in how we perceive others regarding sex-role stereotypes and sexism (Carlson, 1984). Basic Premise of the Ecological Theory The basic premise of the ecological theory is that families interact with their environment to form an ecosystem. Families carry out biological, economic and psychosocial and nurturance functions for the good of itself as well as the good of society. All the peoples of the world are interdependent; there is a balance between cooperation and in the ecosystem and with the demands of the individual for autonomy and freedom (Bubloz Sontag, 1993). Family ecological theory assumptions. Families and the environment are interdependent. * Families are a part of the total life system, so they are interdependent with other forms of life. * Adaptation is a continuing process in families. * All parts of the environment are interrelated and influence each other. * Families interact with multiple environments. * Interactions between families and environments are guided by two sets of rules which include physical and biological laws of nature and human-derived rules (social norms). Environments do not determine human behavior but pose limitations and constraints as well as possibilities and opportunities for families. * Decision making is the central control process in families that directs actions for attaining individual and family goals (Bubloz Sontag, 1993). Application of Assumptions The question of why men or women abuse and why men and women are reluctant to end abusive relationships may seem abstract, but theories have important implications how to understand the problem (Sampson, 2006). Sociologists became interested in examining the effects of the environment on the social organization and thus and it became an approach to the general study of social change† (Dale, Smith, Norlin Chess, 2009). There are differing theories concerning abuse, but families have to adapt, respond and change their environment for survival following the assumption in the ecological theory. In the same manner that society does, families accept violence as a means to resolve conflict. They suggest that abusive behavior is modeled for males in their family of origin (Straus, Gelles, Steinmetz, 1980). â€Å"Family violence is shaped by the personal and marital history of the parents, children and others who comprise the family† (Swick Williams, 2006, p. 374). This follows the assumption of the interaction between families and environments are guided by human-derived rules and what is considered normal for a particular family. Violence is used by the most powerful family members to maintain their dominant position (Kurz, 1989). Lower income levels will show higher rates of intimate abuse, and violence may be a more acceptable form of settling disputes (Sampson, 2006). This is relevant on all levels to the individual, their relationships, community and societal level in regard to the corresponding stress on an individual and their family. The assumption of families and their environment are interdependent, that all parts of the environment are interrelated and influence each other and also as to what is accepted as a part of our individual belief system (Bubolz Sontag, 1993). This follows along with the assumption that environments do not determine human behavior, but pose limitations, constraints as well as opportunities. Social support, the lack of social support, and negative life events can have an impact on how women respond and react psychologically whereas, strong social support can protect women’s functioning in traumatic situation (Levendosky and Graham-Bermann, 2001). Strengths of the Ecological Theory Strengths of the ecological theory in consideration of domestic violence is that it takes into account each system level in its contextual ature in regard to the person’s life and the diversity of the circumstances. Each family experiences stress in unique ways and families respond differently to different stressors. â€Å"Because family stressors are different, it is impossible to stereotype families in relation to their stress dynamics† (Swick Williams, 2006, p. 373). Limitations of the Ecological Theory One of the limitati ons of the theory is that while it allows for a broad spectrum of causal factors and assumptions, it doesn’t specifically identify every factor that might contribute to couple violence. Learned Helplessness Theory for Domestic Violence Learned helplessness has been applied to domestic violence and battered women cases, due to the frame of mind that women are limited to, as well as to answer questions such as why women will not leave an abusive environment. The principle of learned helplessness according to Seligman follows the assumptions that a person in certain situations will feel a lack of control, and symptoms that often times resemble depression (Dale et al, 2009, p. 31. Learned helplessness is a concept that is cognitive in nature, formed by role-observing, and strengthened through reward and punishment (Barnett LaViolette, 1993). Roles According to Barnett (1993), sex-roles play a major part in the perceptions of women; for example in regards to socialization women are taught that the norm is to rely upon a male partner for their attachment and support. On the opposite end, men are taught to be aggressive; women are instructed to be soft, and nurturing. Even in work related environments, women will often decline employment options that will separate them from their partners, or take them away from their learned roles as mothers (Barnette LaViolette, 1993). A quote from Louis Wyse sums up the sexual role in reference to domestic violence â€Å"Men are taught to apologize for their weaknesses, women for their strengths† (p. 1). This powerlessness is evident in cases of domestic violence in which the woman stays in a violent situation even though there is outward support; it is also evident that women who do not receive family or community support will accept the idea hat the man holds the power (Walker, 2009). Learned helplessness is described as starting at a young age for women; typically as daughters we learn our roles through our mothers and their roles as a caretaker, wife, and mother. Young women learn about self-respect based on how others perceive them in regards to being liked or not. Into adulthood, women continue th eir journey to self-identification through the relationships, therefore, the skills and â€Å"norms† that were previously practiced in their family environments becomes a reflex (Barnett, LaViolette, 1993). A common misconception from the learning aspect of the theory is that women who are beat, were raised in a dysfunctional environment, and therefore do not have the capacity or knowledge to leave. In actuality the women stay are taught to â€Å"stand by your man† by their mothers or female models (Barnett LaViolette, 1993, p. 12). No matter how severe the domestic violence was, some women stated â€Å"With time I just got accustomed to the abuse† (Walker, 2009, p. 346). This is known as the chameleon effect, in which the women, due to their helplessness, adapt to their environment in order to cope. Cycle of Violence A theory known as the Cycle of Violence was developed to explain the ups and downs of battering incidents, or rather the dilemma of staying or leaving. This is a three phase cycle that covers â€Å"(1) tension-building accompanied with rising sense of danger, (2) the acute battering incident, and (3) loving-contrition† (Walker, 2009, p. 91). The first phase refers to the acts that come before physical violence, such as confrontation, hitting objects, threats, and aggressive outbursts (Barnett LaViolette, 1993). According to Walker (2009) these aggressive actions are an attempt to display dissatisfaction, in which the woman will try to correct or improve his mood in anyway necessary. Reinforcement comes from the effectiveness in her efforts to keep the situation/violence in control; however, this only lasts for a short period of time. This thought process is unrealistic in nature because the woman generally thinks that she is controlling the man in keeping him calm and satisfied by performing tasks that the male figure typically wishes to be completed (i. e. ironing, cooking, cleaning) (2009). Phase one continues until further escalation into the second phase of actual physical abuse. At this point the woman feels that she has lost her control over her spouse or partner due to the eruption of anger. Phase two, the acute battering incident, is characterized by feelings of fear and helplessness. The woman will take this situation as an â€Å"accident† or make up excuses for the man as well as for her. Self-esteem is affected in many ways and further torments her into thinking â€Å"I cannot live a good life without him; nobody would love me, or care about me, or want me but him. I am worth nothing† (Walker, 2009 p 346). In terms of control, women in studies admitted to feeling powerless. â€Å"I had no freedom, no money, occasionally he let me out to go to the grocery store down the road but if I didn’t return on time, he hit me badly† (1993, p. 345). Many women will stay in a dangerous living situation because of a concept known as learned hopefulness. This is also known as the â€Å"honeymoon phase† and phase three of the cycle of violence (love contrition) (Barnett LaViolette, 1993, p. 16). Within this phase more positive reinforcement takes place; the batterer will apologize, and attempt to mend their bruises with romance, gifts, and thoughtful acts (1993). The husband or abuser will often promise to never harm the woman again. In a study completed at a women’s shelter, 73% thought â€Å"he will change† at this point; this is also the number one reason for women who stay in an abusive relationship; number two reason being the fear of revenge (1993, p. 17). Learned Helplessness Assumptions * A person’s concept of self will often be later displayed through behavior. The concept is cognitive in nature and is a frame of mind that leads a person to feel a loss of control. * Individuals with learned helplessness have a self-esteem problem in regards to taking things personally; they also feel that it is a permanent aspect, as well as pervasive (taking over their entire life) (Dale, et al. , 2009). * These examples assumptions are displayed in the cycle o f violence. Past, Current, and Future Work Some of the very first case studies on learned helplessness were developed to answer the question as to why battered women will not leave an abusive situation. Seligman answered this question by using dogs in an experiment in which they were repeatedly shocked. The dogs were unable to escape from the physical pain, even when an apparent escape was available. Seligman discussed and labeled learned helplessness due to the fact that many factors are affected in regards to animals and humans, such as behavior, cognitive abilities, and motivation to find an escape (Barnett La Violette, 1993). In regards to current work, experimental groups are being devised to inquire about neurological aspects. Neuroscientists are looking at serotonin release in animals in reference to stress which is a major factor in learned helplessness. Many of the experiments are finding that the dogs in the studies are actually not in a state of learned helplessness, but simply in a frame of mind that is natural to them (Dingfelder, 2009). There are many problems and limitations with studies involving learned helplessness. Many surround the fact that there has been no research that confirms or denies that possibility that learned helplessness is a true factor in domestic violence. The second is in regards to the sample type. The women who are in the studies for abuse are often in shelters and therefore found an escape from the violence. It is hard to determine the reasons for the women who don’t leave the domestic violence due to their animosity (Miller, 1981). Future research should look at police investigation or in instances where a domestic dispute is called in, a social worker should be present to determine such factors and lend a more insightfulness. Other limitations within the research of learned helplessness lie within the reason for the studies. There has been no research to determine how this theory and concepts will decrease domestic violence. The only way to end the helpless phase is to have a support system who will inform of ways to help such as self-talk and improving ones self-esteem. Domestic Violence Policy Domestic violence policies are designed to either reduce subsequent violence after an incident (e. g. , statues authorizing the courts to issue protection orders) or to deter potential violence (e. . , changing domestic violence offenses from misdemeanors to felonies) (Black, p. 1087, 1971. ) The most common misconception about domestic violence offenders is that â€Å"nothing will be done to them (the offenders. ) They (the police) just talk to them and let them go. † Bachman and Coker (1995) found that women are less likely to seek police help if the perpetrator had previously victimized them (p. 95. ) Th ey suggest this finding may be partially explained by ‘‘learned helplessness† found in women who are battered over time (Walker, 1979, p. . ) Another plausible explanation is that previously victimized women may have been disappointed by earlier criminal justice responses (ecological perspective). The ecological perspective is important in many fields as a way to understand why individuals take or do not take certain actions in society. This is important research for politicians developing policies that are aimed at changing a social problem such as domestic violence, poverty or environmental degradation. Domestic Violence Laws In 2010, at the request of Missouri’s Attorney General Chris Koster, a Task Force on Domestic Violence was established which is comprised of legislators, the coalition’s CEO and the Missouri Office of Prosecution Services director; to hold state wide hearings, review 30 years of existing state domestic violence laws, inquire ab out statewide and local practices of intervention, and issue reports recommending legislative and public policy changes† (New Missouri Law: 2011 p. 1, 2011. ) As a result of this task force, several domestic violence laws have been changed. Some of the laws changed are expanding protections orders violations that trigger arrest. Before this change, respondents could only be arrested when they abused, stalked or violated conditions of the Order of Protection relating to child custody, communication with the petitioner of entry in to the petitioner’s home or dwelling unit. Since these changes; â€Å"respondents can be arrested for entering a petitioner’s place of employment or school or are within a certain distance of the petitioner or a child of the petitioner† (Missouri Law 455. 085. 7-8 and 455. 538. 4(1) RSMo. Also reimbursement maximums were set for sexual assault forensics evidence exams. Before this change â€Å"victims of domestic violence who were ordered to do a rape kit were charged exorbitant fees for the exam† (Missouri Law 595. 220. 1(2) RSMo. ) Proposed Social Work Policy or Program A new proposed social work policy or program that stems from learned helplessness theory would en sure the reporting of possible domestic violence more prominently. This could include possible engaging of the media and public in creating new social and cultural norms that discourage violence against women. Expand mandatory reporting of possible sexual abuse from mandated reported to any person who observes a person being subjected to sexual abuse. Currently there is a proposed bill in the Missouri House Senate regarding this idea as related to children. Senate Bill 457 would require mandatory child abuse reporting to the children’s Division when a sexual offense has been witnessed by any person who observes the child being subjected to sexual abuse (2012). This author feels this bill should be expanded to all persons who are being subjected to domestic violence and sexual abuse. A new proposed social work policy or program that stems from learned helplessness theory would ensure the reporting of possible domestic violence more prominently. Early identification of those at risk for victimization can be significant in preventing future violence. Also to reduce re-victimization, increase prison time for perpetrators of domestic violence. Currently there is a Missouri Senate House Bill that is requesting that community level supervision be offered for non-violent offenders. Senate Bill 1525 shifts from incarceration of certain offenders to community level supervision to reduce the state’s rapidly growing prison costs (2012. ) This means that sexual violence offenders will be put on probation and allowed to live in the same community as their victim. Currently the authorized dispositions for felony convictions of sexual abuse or domestic violence include a term of imprisonment, a fine if the offense is a Class C or D felony and a period of probation (Missouri sentencing laws: Section 560. 11, RSMo. ) Currently, authorized dispositions for felony convictions include a term of imprisonment, a fine if the offense is a Class C or D felony (Missouri sentencing laws: Section 560. 111, RSMo) and a period of probation. In addition, the execution of the sentence may be suspended and the person placed on probation or the imposition of the sentence may be suspended, with or without placing the person on probation (Missouri sentencing laws: Section 557. 011, RSMo). Future Policies Recommendations for further research, practice, and social work policy should focus more on the long term effects of domestic violence within families. However, it has been noted that victims of domestic violence, mainly battered women, suffer physical and mental problems. Studying long-term effects of these injuries may give insight to PTSD and allow for better treatment. â€Å"Battering is the single major cause of injury to women, more significant that auto accidents, rapes, or muggings† (Georgia Department of Human Resources Family Violence Manual, p. , 1992). Many of the physical injuries sustained by battered women seem to cause medical difficulties as women grow older. Arthritis, hyper-tension and heart disease have been identified by battered women as directly caused or aggravated by domestic violence suffered early in their adult lives. Data suggests that one-third of the children who witness domestic violence demonstrate significant behavioral and/or emotional proble ms, including psychosomatic disorders, stuttering, anxiety and fears, sleep disruption, excessive crying and school problems. Data also suggests that boys who witness domestic violence are more likely to inflict severe violence as adults. Data involving girls suggest that girls who witness maternal abuse may tolerate abuse as adults more than girls who do not. These negative effects may be diminished if the families could benefit from intervention by the law and domestic violence programs. â€Å"Domestic violence is not impulsive, but a purposeful behavior meant to confuse and control the victim. It is not an isolated incident but rather a pattern of repeated behaviors. It can be physical, verbal, emotional, or psychological and the relationship may be one of marriage, cohabitation, or dating. Domestic violence is a severe problem in our community that results in shattered homes and damages lives. Very few victims of domestic violence will tell anyone—not even a friend, a relative, a neighbor, or the police. Victims come from all walks of life. Domestic violence is a social work issue that needs to be dealt with. † (Christos House, Sherry Fohey, 2012. ) References Bachman, R. and Coker, Ann. (1995). Police involvement in domestic violence: The interactive effects of victim injury, offender’s history of violence, and race,† Violence and Victims, 10, 91 – 106. Barnett, O. W. , LaViolette, A. D. (1993). It could happen to anyone: Why battered women stay. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. â€Å"Battered Families . . . Shattered Lives,† (1992). Department of Human Resources Family Violence Manual, January 1992. Black, D. (1971). â€Å"The Social Organization of Arrest,† Stanford Law Review 23: e 1087-1111. Bubolz, M. , Sontag, M. (1993). Human ecology theory. In P. G. Boss, W. J. Doherty, R. LaRossa, W. R. Schumm, S. K. Steinmetz (Eds. ), Sourcebook of family theories and methods: A contextual approach, 419-448. New York: Plenum Press. Retrieved March 30, 2012 from http://www. public. iastate. edu/~hd_fs. 511/lecture/Sourcebook17. pptSimilar. Christos House. www. yellowpages. com/west-plains-mo/mip/christos-house-467162767 Dale, O. , Smith, R. , Norlin, J. , and Chess, W. (2009). Human behavior and the social environment: Social systems theory. Pearson: Boston, MA. Dingfelder, S. F. (2009). â€Å"Old problem, new tools,† American Psychological Association, 40(9), 40. Retrieved from http://www. apa. org/monitor/2009/10/helplessness. aspx. Kurz, D. (1989). Social science perspectives on wife abuse: Current debates and future directions. Gender and Society, 3,404, 489-505. Levendosky, A. , Graham-Bermann, S. (2001). Parenting in battered women: The effects of domestic violence on women and their children. Journal of Family Violence, 16, 2, 171-192. Miller, J. C. (1981). â€Å"An application of learned helplessness theory to battered women. Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations (AAT 6124688) Missouri HB 1525, Missouri Senate, (2012). Missouri Sentencing Advisory Commission. Missouri sentencing laws. Missouri Law 455. 085. 7-8 RSMo. http://www. mosac. mo. gov/page. jsp? id=45392. Retrieved April 11, 2012 Missouri Sentencing Advisory Commission. Missouri sentencing laws. Missouri Law 455. 538. 4(1) RSMo. http://www. mosac. mo. gov/page. jsp? id=4539 2. Retrieved April 11, 2012 Missouri Sentencing Advisory Commission. Missouri sentencing laws. Missouri Law Section 557. 011, RSMo. http://www. osac. mo. gov/page. jsp? id=45392. Retrieved April 11, 2012. Missouri Sentencing Advisory Commission. Missouri sentencing laws. Missouri Law Section 560. 111, RSMo. Missouri Sentencing Advisory Commission. Missouri sentencing laws. http://www. mosac. mo. gov http://www. mosac. mo. gov/page. jsp? id=45392. Retrieved April 11, 2012 Modifies provisions of mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse. Missouri SB 457. Missouri Senate, (2012). New Missouri Law: 2011. www. mocadsv. org/Resources/CMSResources/pdf/LegislativeUpdates/. Retrieved April 11, 2012. Sampson, R. 2006). The problem of domestic violence. Domestic Violence, Guide, 45. Retrieved on April 9, 2012 from http://www. popcenter. org/problems/domestic_violence. Straus, M. , Gelles, R. , Steinmetz, S. (1980). Behind closed doors: Violence in the American family. Garden City, NY: Anchor/ Doubleday. pdf. 1999 Walker, L. (1979). The battered woman. New York, NY: Harper and Row. Walker, L. E. (2009). The battered woman syndrome. New York, NY. Springer Publishing Company, LLC. World report on violence and health: summary. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002: 1-57. How to cite Domestic Violence, Essay examples Domestic Violence Free Essays While watching the news or reading newspapers, it’s no longer uncommon to find another heartbreaking story about domestic violence. This issue has reached a terrifying level. The numbers of domestic violence cases in the United States of America are steadily increasing each year directly related to the increasing stress level of the United State as a whole. We will write a custom essay sample on Domestic Violence or any similar topic only for you Order Now Domestic violence is caused by misunderstanding among family members, work related stress, as well as influence from media. This can ultimately result in divorce, depression or other emotional illness, and disconnection of families, whether it be between spouses or parents and children. Stress is a major cause of domestic violence. In today’s society, everyone has ‘too much on their plate. ’ Americans too often over commit their selves. Whether it’s staying later at work to get that one quote done or chauffeuring all 7 kids to each of their sport’s practices, they are just too busy. This generation’s kids are so involved in sports, school, along with participating in numerous extracurricular activities. Children can consume parents’ lives, leaving no time to spend with each other. Misunderstanding, as well as a lack of communication, among families can emanate from the absence of trust between family members. A loss of trust can put a huge strain on a marriage as well as relationships between parents and children. Trustworthiness between family members is necessary for a successful relationship. In addition, lack of communication between family members can cause many problems. Without communication, people often lose trust in each other. Furthermore, media has an increasing influence on Americans. Over the past few years, it seems like most television programs revolve around broken families. Media is creating the impression that this is how it’s supposed be, which is absolutely false. These causes a can all be prevented. American’s simply need to be strong, calm down, and stop sweating the small stuff. The effects of domestic violence are serious. Domestic violence includes verbal and physical abuse of children, teenagers, spouses or other family members. Divorce, abuse of a parent, or the abuse the child directly can destroy a child. They may lose all self confidence, become extremely shy, or even take out their built up anger and fear on other children at school. Domestic violence of teenagers can have an even more serious and traumatic effect: suicide, self abuse, or abuse of others. The effects of domestic violence of adults include the effects on children and teenagers and more. The most popular effect on adults is the divorce of spouses. Divorce affects both spouses, and often times after a divorce children are neglected. Depression and other emotional illnesses often stem from domestic violence. Domestic violence leaves lasting effects on anyone who experiences it. There are many causes and effects of domestic violence. Media and work related stress are two causes that can be easily eliminated. The emotional tolls one goes through when involved in a violent relationship are heartbreaking.. American families need to get out of this rut, and stop hurting each other. These physical and emotional scars of those affected are impacting our country as a whole. Let’s take a stand against domestic violence, and stop it. How to cite Domestic Violence, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Favorite Painting by Picasso Essay Example For Students

Favorite Painting by Picasso Essay Have you ever gone to the museum and glanced at paintings but had to do a double take because a painting grabbed your attention so strongly? This is what happened to me when I saw the painting by Pablo Picasso entitled Mother and Child 1901. This painting was done during what was called the Blue Period. Picasso Blue Period was in 1900 and ended in 1904. (unknown, Pablo Picasso Blue Period 1901-1904, 2009) All of his paintings during this period were created in shades of blue and blue-green with other colors occasionally. Picasso had many paintings that had the same title UT in different time periods. Paintings by Picasso brought out warm and loving feelings in my heart. This one particular had me to think of the Joys of being a mother. I chose this painting by Picasso because it is warm and loving. You can see and feel how much the mother and child loved and cared for each other by their embrace. The mother clothed in a dark blue wrap that covers her head and continues around her body; has her right hand softly touching the back of her childs head. She is delicately bending down towards the child as she kisses him/her on the ordered. It is hard to tell if the child is a boy or girl. The child is in a light blue gown with matching slippers. His/her head is tilted upward to welcome the kiss from his/ her mother. It appears that the child has brought the mother a piece of fruit. Based on the colors of orange and pale yellow, it could possibly be an orange, mango or peach. The mother has a basket next to the black rocking chair she is sitting in. There is a white cloth in the basket along with some thread and scissors. It looks like the child brought the fruit while the mother was sewing. The child may have wanted his/ her mother to take a break and eat something. When I first saw this painting, I thought of Mary and Jesus. It evoked feelings in me of warmth, love and pure Joy. As I look at the way the mother expresses the love for her child, I can put myself in her place and feel how much she loves her child. I can feel my hand embracing the soft hair on the childs head and the soft kiss being placed on his/her forehead. To me the blue color of her wrap evokes the feeling of comfort. I can also feel the childs heart being warmed from the kiss he/she receives room the mother. The mother has her eyes closed as she kisses the child on his/her forehead. I can see that the kiss is a result of the fruit that the child has brought to her. In this painting it appears that the child is in his/her night clothing and is preparing for bed as the mother is busy sewing a piece of clothing in the basket. I can feel that this special moment between mother and child is a soft and loving moment. Pablo Picasso has many paintings that have the women seem to have a religious resemblance to Mary and the child possibly to Jesus. I can see that Picasso held elision as an important part of most of his paintings. I felt that Picasso viewed this painting as one of love from a mother to a child and vice versa. He painted the love of them as beautiful and distinctively warmly. I love how the child shows that he/she loves the attention his/her mother is giving and love they express between them. If I was a mother and alive in Picasso time, I would have asked him to paint a portrait of me and my children. Perhaps I will come across a painting from this century that resembles Picasso and it will make me feel warm and full of love as well.

Thursday, March 26, 2020

Is Homosexuality Biologically Based free essay sample

An individual’s sexual positioning is their unambiguous perpetual preference starting from sexual maturity when other substitutions are available (Silfe, 2012). Persons have their own sexual preference they choose to be with, no one is born to like the same sex. An indisputable fact about humanity is that every individual owes their existence to the physical union between their father and mother, and this reality forms the basis for the concept of family. However, anthropologists clearly point out that the existence of homosexuality has been identified in some societies at different degrees of prevalence throughout the history. The trait of homosexuality can be simply defined as the sexual attraction between the individuals of the same sex. A homosexual person in the male gender is called ‘gay’ while the term ‘lesbian’ represents a homosexual female. Over the past three decades, the number of homosexuals has dramatically increased and such trait has increasingly grown to be mainstream and open. We will write a custom essay sample on Is Homosexuality Biologically Based or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Several studies suggest alterations association prenatal exposure to androgens or estrogens. One study reports that some women are exposed to high levels of androgens during development (adolescence) because of development with other endocrine disorder is to self-report a bisexual or homosexual orientation, (Money et al. , 1984) The current debate is whether or not homosexuality is a result of nature: a persons environment and surroundings, or of his biology and genetics. The debate endures because both sides have the ability to create a scientific environment to support their cause. For example, biological theorists may argue that a monkey and human child, reared in the same setting, will develop with vastly different outcomes, while social theorists may argue that monozygotic twins, one reared normally and the other raised in seclusion for 18 years, will also develop with vastly different results, but different even more from the first scenario. Sex hormone levels were found to be normal in the majority of homosexual women, but prenatal androgen excess, heterosexuality appears to be more frequent than bisexuality, an exclusive homosexuality is rare. Contrariwise, the removal of the adrenal, which is the major androgen-producing organ in the female, decreases libido. These findings have led to the hypothesis that androgens are the libido hormone in women as well as in men. We can conclude hat the majority of female homosexuals appear to have testosterone and estrogen levels within normal female range, whereas there seems to be a significant subsection of about one-third of all subjects screened with an elevation of male sex hormone levels. (Meyer-Bahlburg, H. (1979) Women exposed prenatally via their pregnant mothers to diethylstilbestrol estrogen with masculinizing effects in female mammals) received higher ratings of homosexual behavior (Ehrhardt et al. , 1985) and showed an increased incidence of left-hand preference compared to female controls. Similarly, women with congenital adrenal hyperplasmia compared to female controls. In summary, there appears to be an association, at least in women, among excessive prenatal exposure to masculinizing hormones, homosexual behavior, and increased left-hand preference. Researchers are still only beginning to comprehend the genetic causes of homosexuality. Studies conducted to date, it is evident that biology is the largest aspect in determining a person’s sexual identity and preference, Studies in the fields of psychology still being researched.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Learning and Behavior

Learning and Behavior Introduction Learning is a continuous process and has proven to be an important aspect in the lives of human beings. By definition, Akers loosely describes learning as the process through which human beings gain knowledge, skills and expertise that can be applied in day-to-day endeavors (32).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Learning and Behavior specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Considering the importance of learning, theorists have over the years developed various models that try to explain how different individuals learn and the thought process behind each learning model. As such, these learning theories propose mechanisms that account for the changes that occur as a result of our learning experiences. Learning theories such as the social and constructivist theories have resulted in the identification of mechanisms through which experiences in the environment would alter and sustain changes in behavior. These change s are of a relatively permanent nature and Akers and Gary affirm that the changes in human behavior are as a result of human being’s extensive capacity for learning (64). Both these theories are among the most popular learning theories. They have been reviewed and applied in many areas and has helped in understanding how consequences can invariably affect or shape an individual’s learning. This study will utilize the assumptions forwarded by these theories to further our understanding in regards to the extent to which consequences derived from a behavior can shape our learning. To this end, this discussion shall aim to answer the following question: Does a consequence have to follow behavior in order for any learning to occur? A scenario whereby these theories could be applied in real life situations will be given and a detailed description of how one would implement operant conditioning demonstrated. Description of social and constructivist theories MacKeracher assert s that learning refers to the content of thought or to what we acquire through the learning process and that learning styles explicitly refer to how we have acquired such knowledge or skill (74). Learning styles are achieved by combining a number of learning strategies to come up with particular learning styles. Individuals can implement several strategies of learning but often prefer to rely on the strategy they know best. It is widely agreed by educators all over the world that individuals who actively engage in the learning process are likely to achieve greater success. This assertion is backed by numerous education literature which reveals that once individuals are engaged in a particular learning process that suits them, they feel empowered and their propensity for higher personal achievements significantly rises.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The significance of lea rning styles springs from the fact that each individual has personally preferred strategies for processing information and for learning (MacKeracher 79). It is these strategies that determine the manner in which an individual goes about the learning task. The constructivist theory of learning is one of the most well-known and applicable models of experiential learning. While this theory is not specific to behavioral studies, its applicability in the consequence-behavior paradigm remains relevant. Mulligan Griffin theorize that the reason why the constructivist theory is most applicable in deciphering learning is because it has been found successful in explaining how individuals learn. This model argues for a dialectical relationship between learner and environment in which two diametrically opposed modes of knowing provide the means through which we appropriate our experience and transform it (Gelfand 17). Scenario for learning theory Application The case provided presents a classi c example of a child whose underlying desires to have some chewing gum forces him to steal a packet after the caretaker refuses to buy them for him. While the shop owner insists that spanking the child for the wrong done is the only solution that can guarantee deterrence from such an act, the caregiver argues that there are better and more effective ways of finding resolve in regards to the situation at hand. Using the aforementioned theories as the basis for this debate, the caregiver can irrefutably support his stance against spanking. For example, in Bandura’s social learning theory, Bandura proposes that people often acquire their social skills through observation, imitation and modeling (Akers 18). He states that in as much as we acquire intellect through class work, the social skills that we have are learnt from other people. As such, Ben’s actions can best be explained by the fundamental components behind this theory.Advertising We will write a custom es say sample on Learning and Behavior specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The first component of this theory is behavior potential. According to Bandura, this refers to the probability of adopting a particular behavior in a given situation. Behavior potential explores the likelihood of an individual to exhibit particular behaviors as a result of past experiences or behaviors and can be used to explain how habits are developed. Considering Ben’s age, the likelihood of him behaving the way he did is very high because as a child, his desire for the chewing gum surpasses his perception of the risks or consequences that may arise if caught with the stolen gum. As such, spanking him after being caught would only be viewed as a punishment for being caught and not for stealing. What this means is that the likelihood of Ben doing it again would remain high simply because he can reinvent his habits to ensure that he steals without being caught. The second component is expectancy. Expectancy as explained by Bandura refers to the probability that a particular behavior will yield a desirable outcome. In this case, Ben’s decision to steal the gum was mainly influenced by the fact that the outcome would be favorable for him. As such, since his expectancy was high in regards to attaining a favorable outcome, his confidence in relations to the outcome was boosted. This means that the likelihood that his stealing habits are to continue is relatively high. Thirdly, Bandura argues that a behavior is strengthened by how desirable its outcome or consequence is. This assertion brings about the concept of reinforcement value. As such, if an individual considers the outcome of a behavior to be positive, then the behavior is likely to continue and invariably, sustain itself. However, if the consequence is negative, there is a high probability that the occurrence of the behavior will decrease. The fourth and final component is the psych ological situation. It is a known fact that people differ in regards to how they perceive and interpret situations. This concept lays a great foundation for the ‘locus of control’ concept. This concept refers to belief that an individual determines his/her life experiences.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are two categories of this concept; the internal loci which focuses on the belief that individuals success or failure is as a result of their own efforts and the external loci which focuses on the belief that consequences and outcomes of a persons behaviors are controlled and shaped by other people. In the later case, factors such as fate, luck and destiny among others play a pivotal role. Discussion In light of the social learning theory, spanking Ben for his behavior would not be the most viable solution since it does not address the primary cause of his action. Using the explanation provided above, it is evident that stealing as a habit involves a series of thought processes and the mere fact that Ben was caught is enough to deter the habit since it is a negative consequence to the act. In addition, Bandura asserts that learning of a behavior depends on the environment and social interactions. As such, the best solution would be to monitor these aspects and ensure that Ben associates himself with positive peers and is in an environment that offers positive reinforcement to good behavior. In so doing, the care giver will have deterred the undesired habit without necessarily applying any negative reinforcement or punishment. Conclusion This study set out to discuss one of the major learning theories; social learning model. To this end, a description of the theory of social learning and its functioning has been given. Further on, a demonstration of how classical conditioning can be used in a practical situation to elicit desired behavior has also been provided. From the discussion, it is evident that spanking as a consequence for bad behavior may not suffice in shaping and facilitating positive change to an individual facing various social and environmental influences. Akers, Ronald. Social learning and social structure: a general theory of crime and deviance. USA: Transaction Publishers, 2009. Print. Akers, Ronald and Gary F. Jensen. Social Learning Th eory and the Explanation of Crime. USA: Transaction Publishers, 2007. Print. Gelfand, Donna. Social learning in childhood: readings in theory and application. New York: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co., 1975. Print. MacKeracher, Dorothy. Making Sense of Adult Learning. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004. Print.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Leadership Management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Leadership Management - Assignment Example One time I managed to collect the most medical bills for the company that was, in fact, a record. No one had exceeded receiving over $10,000 in a month for the company. I broke the barrier and collected over $12,000 of medical bills (bad debts). It was my supervisor who recognized and rewarded me for my effort. I used to report directly to this person. Any discrepancy or a problem in the workflow was reported directly to him. I did not receive any extra monetary recognition for my efforts. My direct supervisor was usually a reticent person. He never verbally praised anyone before. When he praised me, it made it unique to me and for my peers. On the day when we got our reports he walked into the room. All the employees were sitting at their workstations busy with work. Suddenly he announced my name and asked me to stand up. Then he read the report of my performance. With a smile, he announced my collections for the month. All the other employees started cheering and clapping. I have chosen to cite this experience here because it was unique and therefore memorable. In our medical bill collection company, such recognition or reward system was unknown before. Employees would just work get their paychecks and go back to their homes. But this was the first time when they realized that they were adding value to the company. We felt like we were an essential part of the organization. My efforts also made my supe rvisor happy because our department received additional funds for better performance than the other departments. When I received the recognition, it made me feel proud of myself. Ironically, the things that do not cost money are usually the most effective (Nelson, page I). I started believing in myself. Before this occurrence, I never considered myself worthy of such a competition. There were more experienced professionals and peers working in the same department. I was of the mind that I could never beat them at their game. But I did not only beat them